Bible study - a scientific discipline that studies the various aspects of Biblical Literature. As a separate discipline was formed in the era of the Reformation in order to promote the idea of Protestant «Sola scriptura», and since then has traditionally been present as a separate department practically in all universities in the Western world.
Modern biblical studies centers are Germany, Great Britain, Israel, USA and Scandinavian countries. Nowadays, more and more important place in Biblical studies is Spain. Biblical studies are devoted to dozens of periodicals in English, German, Hebrew, French and other languages. Every year there are dozens of new books on Biblical studies. For all these innovations pursue the five most important directories: «Elenchus», «IZBG», «OTA» («Old Testament Abstracts»), «NTA» («New Testament Abstracts»), «TA» («Theological Abstracts»).
Sections of Biblical Studies
Among the topics may be noted biblical archeology, history, ancient languages, especially Hebrew, and biblical theology, exegesis, criticism of the text, issues of translation, the history of the canon, comparative religious studies, patristics, artistic and literary aspects of the history of ancient jurisprudence, cultural and sociological analysis, and more. A special place in biblical studies is the study pseudo-Biblical literature (Apocrypha, the ancient commentaries and translations, etc.)
The development of biblical studies
At the beginning of the XVIII century foundations of New Testament textual criticism laid the Lutheran biblical scholar Johann Bengel.
During the XX century it was discovered a huge number of ancient manuscripts that propelled the rapid development of biblical studies. Among these findings, we can point to such well-known as the Dead Sea scrolls, the Cairo Geniza and the Ugaritic Library.
In Russia, the Bible study became popular in the early XIX century. Many Russian scientists have organized archaeological expeditions in Biblical countries, there were a number of Bible translations, and some books of the Bible from Hebrew and Greek dictionaries published in Hebrew and Greek into Russian, actively engaged in issues of textual criticism. Many books on the Bible was translated from German and French. Even after the Revolution of 1917 about 10 years old Russian Bible scholars met in joint conferences and were active. Among the most prominent biblical scholars XIX - early XX century were Olesnitsky AA, GP Pavsky, VP Rybinsk, I. Troitsky, N. Glubokovsky, M. Palmov, FG Mount of Olives, AP Lopukhin, D. Vvedensky, P. Kazansky, M. E. Posnov, I. Evseev, etc.
In the Soviet era, biblical studies dealt with the socio-economic and ideological assumptions developed in the framework of Marxism. In parallel, there was the development and history of early Christianity itself. The first scientific work was a book by SA Zhebeleva "canonical and apocryphal Gospels." In pre-revolutionary years has continued to develop bibleisticheskoy Orientalist academic subjects N.M.Nikolsky (1877-1959). Later, the problems of New Testament literature, historians have turned Rumyantsev and R. Wipper ("The emergence of Christian literature").
Published works by JS Sventsitsky ("Forbidden Gospels", etc.) and Trofimova of the New Testament apocrypha, JA Lentsmana ("Comparing the Gospel" and "Origins of Christianity"), prof. AA Alekseeva, "Textual Slavic Bible." Today, the problems involved in Biblical Studies in St. Petersburg at the philological and philosophical faculties of St. Petersburg State University and Moscow State Humanitarian University in St. Andrew, and.